Of course investment is needed to implement new transport schemes, but it may be less than you'd think. The price of a PPM vehicle is more than a bus, but much less than a train - and a PPM system is considerably less expensive than a modern "Supertram" system.
If PPM railcars are used to replace traditional trains, their lower energy, maintenance and lease costs will show up instantly, and the cost of track maintenance will be reduced as the lighter vehicles cause less damage.
However, transport systems are not an end in themselves: the investment in transport pays back not only in fares but also in the financial returns of increased mobility and a dynamic economy.
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